Dynamic vehicle routing

The dynamic allocation of vehicles to routes is a decision problem consisting of determining optimal transport routes for a strictly defined number of vehicles, the task of which is to serve a set of customers located at various points while maintaining limitations.

The optimization criterion is the total cost of transport (expressed in terms of distance, price or time) or several criteria at the same time, e.g.

  • The vehicles can carry a maximum of n parcels of various dimensions or m of customers
  • Each package has a weight and vehicles weight limit
  • Each package has weight and dimensions, vehicles have a weight limit and dimensions
  • Each vehicle has its own available load capacity and the package has defined delivery windows

Selected parameters and functionalities of the assignment module:

  • Shortest route, fastest route for a vehicle or fleet of vehicles,
  • Loading capacity limitation (number of parcels, weight, dimensions)
  • The asymmetry of transport costs between the vertices,
  • Homogeneous and non-homogeneous rolling stock,
  • Limiting the maximum length of the route per vehicle,
  • One or many locations where vehicles start and end their journey,
  • Taking into account the time windows of receipt / shipment of the goods,
  • Routing with the problem of inventory control at customers,
  • Ability for multiple vehicles to serve one customer,
  • The cost objective function can be replaced with other parameters (e.g. order execution time, route length, quantity of cargo transported),
  • Possibility to define the order of visiting individual places and optional visiting some points,
  • Taking into account the possibility of returns and shipment of goods by customers

Benefits for the operator based on an analysis of a logistics company operating food deliveries in Poland

Input data:

  • Operator with 420 heavy vehicles (including large vans)
  • Average annual mileage per vehicle: 140,000 km;
  • Of which approx. 75% of km generating revenues;
  • Annual operating cost of the vehicle (including depreciation) PLN 468.809.00 / year


  • A decrease in the operating cost of the fleet by about 16% (75k per year per vehicle, 31.5M PLN per year per fleet)


Courier services
Passenger and taxi companies
Long-distance transport


Higher loading capacity = more orders completed in one pass
Reduction of fuel consumption
Greater profit as a result of individualized strategy
Possibility of lowering the unit price for service